A fun and easy way to learn about 19th century jihadists (corsairs or Barbary pirates) in interaction with America. Jefferson and Madison are central figures, but many lesser known Americans play a part. The struggles and arguments are much the same as today, but at least the characters are different!
The Pirate Coast: Thomas Jefferson, the First Marines and the Secret Mission of 1805
by Richard Zacks
If you don't believe me, see Michael Ledeen.